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Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily

Published: Jun 14, 2021 2:30:01 AM
  • Jun 13, 2021 10:11:29 PM
    A new imaging technique has the potential to detect neurological disorders -- such as Alzheimer's disease -- at their earliest stages, enabling physicians to diagnose and treat patients more quickly. Termed super-resolution, the imaging methodology combines position emission tomography (PET) with an external motion tracking device to create highly detailed images of the brain.
  • Jun 11, 2021 9:40:42 PM
    Lab animals deficient in vitamin D crave and become dependent on opioids, which is curbed when normal levels of the vitamin are restored. Human health records indicate that people with low vitamin D are more likely to use and misuse opioids. Study results suggest a potential role for vitamin D supplementation in fighting opioid addiction.
  • Jun 11, 2021 9:40:37 PM
    In a discovery that challenges long-held dogma in biology, researchers show that mammalian cells can convert RNA sequences back into DNA, a feat more common in viruses than eukaryotic cells.
  • Jun 11, 2021 9:40:32 PM
    Pine Island Glacier's ice shelf lost about one-fifth of its total area between 2017 and 2020, in three dramatic collapses. Meanwhile the glacier sped up by 12 percent. The rest of the ice shelf, the authors say, could disappear much sooner than previous studies had suggested.
  • Jun 11, 2021 3:08:07 PM
    Researchers have identified the brain regions involved in choosing whether to find out if a bad event is about to happen.
  • Jun 11, 2021 3:08:02 PM
    3D tumors that disintegrate within a few days thanks to the action of a well-known omega-3 (DHA, found mainly in fish) -- this is a promising discovery. Hungry for fatty acids, tumor cells in acidosis gorge themselves on DHA but are unable to store it correctly and literally poison themselves. The result? They die.
  • Jun 11, 2021 12:56:17 PM
    Researchers analysing skeletal remains in the city of Cambridge find a dramatic increase in 'hallux valgus' around the time that pointed shoes became de rigueur in the 1300s. They also uncover a link between this minor deformity and increased risk of fractures.
  • Jun 11, 2021 12:56:07 PM
    Astronomers have spotted a giant 'blinking' star towards the centre of the Milky Way, more than 25,000 light years away.
  • Jun 11, 2021 12:56:05 PM
    Four planets locked in a perfect rhythm around a nearby star are destined to be pinballed around their solar system when their sun eventually dies, according to a new study that peers into its future.
  • Jun 10, 2021 9:39:52 PM
    The virus that causes COVID-19 can infect and replicate in human kidney cells, but this does not typically lead to cell death. Kidney cells that already have features of injury may be more easily infected and develop additional injury.
  • Jun 10, 2021 9:39:49 PM
    Research looks at how experiencing rudeness amplifies anchoring bias including in doctors' decision-making.
  • Jun 10, 2021 9:39:47 PM
    Leaders who encourage their employees to learn on the job and speak up with ideas and suggestions for change have teams that are more effective and resilient in the face of unexpected situations, according to new research.
  • Jun 10, 2021 8:24:14 PM
    Researchers have published a first- of-its-kind study that shows that near-infrared (NIR) spectrum cameras can help python hunters more effectively track down these invasive snakes, especially at night.
  • Jun 10, 2021 8:24:10 PM
    Climate change exerts great pressure for change on species and biodiversity. A recent study indicates that the few moth and butterfly species (Lepidoptera) capable of adjusting to a changing climate by advancing their flight period and moving further north have fared the best in Finland. In contrast, roughly 40% of Lepidoptera species have not been able to respond in either way, seeing their populations decline.
  • Jun 10, 2021 8:24:07 PM
    Research suggests that children with average risk medulloblastoma can receive radiation to a smaller volume of the brain at the end of a six-week course of treatment and still maintain the same disease control as those receiving radiation to a larger area. But the dose of preventive radiation treatments given to the whole brain and spine over the six-week regimen cannot be reduced without reducing survival.
  • Jun 10, 2021 8:24:05 PM
    A new study has identified mechanisms by which COVID-19 can lead to Alzheimer's disease-like dementia. The findings indicate an overlap between COVID-19 and brain changes common in Alzheimer's, and may help inform risk management and therapeutic strategies for COVID-19-associated cognitive impairment.
  • Jun 10, 2021 8:24:01 PM
    Researchers identify the molecular mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of diabetes drug metformin and, in mouse studies, say it prevents lung inflammation in animals infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
  • Jun 10, 2021 8:23:58 PM
    An estimated 8 million tons of plastic trash enters the ocean each year, and most of it is battered by sun and waves into microplastics -- tiny flecks that can ride currents hundreds or thousands of miles from their point of entry.
  • Jun 10, 2021 8:23:53 PM
    Researchers have created a first-of-its-kind metalens - a metamaterial lens - that can be focused using voltage instead of mechanically moving its components.
  • Jun 10, 2021 8:23:50 PM
    Researchers have identified a previously unknown early driver of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). They report high levels of cis P-tau, a pathogenic protein, in human AD and VaD brains as well as preclinical disease models. Treatment with an antibody to the toxic protein prevented disease progression and reversed disease symptoms and restored cognitive function in older mice.
  • Jun 10, 2021 8:23:48 PM
    Most people listen to music throughout their day and often near bedtime to wind down. But can that actually cause your sleep to suffer? When a sleep researcher realized he was waking in the middle of the night with a song stuck in his head, he saw an opportunity to study how music -- and particularly stuck songs -- might affect sleep patterns.
  • Jun 10, 2021 7:01:25 PM
    The Uttarakhand region of India experienced a humanitarian tragedy on Feb. 7, 2021, when a wall of debris and water barreled down the Ronti Gad, Rishiganga and Dhauliganga river valleys. This debris flow destroyed two hydropower facilities and left more than 200 people dead or missing. A self-organized coalition of 53 scientists came together in the days following the disaster to investigate the cause, scope and impacts.
  • Jun 10, 2021 7:01:19 PM
    Much like a supply truck crossing the countryside, the misfolded proteins that damage neurons in Alzheimer's disease travel the 'roads' of the brain, sometimes stopping and sometimes re-routing to avoid roadblocks.
  • Jun 10, 2021 7:01:16 PM
    Pairing sky-mapping algorithms with advanced immunofluorescence imaging of cancer biopsies, researchers developed a robust platform to guide immunotherapy by predicting which cancers will respond to specific therapies targeting the immune system.
  • Jun 10, 2021 7:01:10 PM
    Scientists have developed a new technique using phosphonium salts that can help drive the future production of green ammonia. This process could reduce the impact of ammonia production on global carbon emissions. Each metric ton of ammonia produced today contributes to roughly 1.9 metric tons of greenhouse emissions.
  • Jun 10, 2021 7:01:00 PM
    How do cells measure themselves? Now we have an answer to this long-standing biological question.
  • Jun 10, 2021 6:45:08 PM
    A new study found that 18- to 24-year-olds who use cell phones while driving are more likely to engage in other risky driving behaviors associated with 'acting-without-thinking,' a form of impulsivity. These findings suggest the importance of developing new strategies to prevent risky driving in young adults, especially those with impulsive personalities.
  • Jun 10, 2021 6:45:05 PM
    In a recent survey of published animal studies, researchers found disregarding the animals' circadian rhythms can hamper reproducibility, reliability and validity.
  • Jun 10, 2021 6:44:56 PM
    The addition of a simple processing step to saliva samples before testing may improve COVID-19 detection rate, eliminate the challenges of nasopharyngeal testing, and facilitate mass surveillance, researchers report.
  • Jun 10, 2021 6:44:52 PM
    As deadly as it is, cancer metastasis is a poorly understood process. A new study describes a cutting-edge tool for tracing the lineage and gene expression of thousands of individual metastatic cancer cells. Their findings open new angles for investigating the processes that drive metastasis.
  • Jun 10, 2021 6:44:47 PM
    With the increase in demand for flexible wearable electronics, researchers have explored flexible energy storage devices, such as flexible supercapacitators, that are lightweight and safe and easily integrate with other devices. Printing electronics has proved to be an economical, simple, and scalable strategy for fabricating FSCs. Researchers provide a review of printed FSCs in terms of ability to formulate functional inks, design printable electrodes, and integrate functions with other electronic devices.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:57:52 PM
    Scientists have devised a novel way of tackling the mounting issue of plastic pollution -- by using bacteria to transform plastic waste into vanilla flavoring.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:57:49 PM
    Scientists say naked mole rats - a rodent native to West Africa - may hold the key to new treatments for degenerative diseases such as cancer and dementia.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:57:44 PM
    Small pieces of plastic are everywhere, stretching from urban environments to pristine wilderness. Left to their own devices, it can take hundreds of years for them to degrade completely. Catalysts activated by sunlight could speed up the process, but getting these compounds to interact with microplastics is difficult. In a proof-of-concept study, researchers developed self-propelled microrobots that can swim, attach to plastics and break them down.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:57:41 PM
    New research finds that the target asteroid of NASA's Psyche mission may not be as metallic or dense as previously predicted, hinting that it might not be an exposed planetary core after all.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:57:10 PM
    Biological engineers have demonstrated a way to easily retrieve data files stored as DNA. This could be a step toward using DNA archives to store enormous quantities of photos, images, and other digital content.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:54 PM
    Researchers have developed an innovative way to use the clumped isotope method to reconstruct climate in the geological past on the seasonal scale. They show that dinosaurs had to deal with hotter summers than previously thought. The results suggest that in the mid latitudes, seasonal temperatures will likely rise along with climate warming, while seasonal difference is maintained. This results in very high summer temperatures.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:52 PM
    A new technique uses high-throughput sequencing, instead of a microscope, to obtain ultra-high-resolution images of gene expression from a tissue slide.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:49 PM
    Researchers used a hydraulic model to consider the degree to which human-caused climate change may have affected flooding in Houston in 2017 during Hurricane Harvey. Resources were used to quantify the increase in Houston flood area and depth and to host a portal where other scientists and the public can access and explore the resulting data.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:47 PM
    Researchers have identified how tumors cause immune cells to lose their ability to fight cancer, by producing harmful fats the energy-hungry immune cells ingest, impairing their functionality. The understanding opens new avenues for novel immunotherapies for cancer.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:16 PM
    Lack of water, floods, or crop losses: As a result of climate change, pronounced periods of drought and rainfall are causing human suffering and major economic damage. Precise seasonal forecasts can help to mitigate these consequences. A research team has now been able to improve global forecasts using statistical methods so that they can be used on the regional level.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:13 PM
    The annual number of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men in England is likely to have fallen dramatically, from 2,770 in 2013 to 854 in 2018, showing elimination of HIV transmission by 2030 to be within reach -- suggests new work.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:11 PM
    Scientists summarize and critically appraise the current approaches to determining the concentrations of antimicrobials that increase AMR. By collating and assessing available data, they have recommended what these safe thresholds could be, to enable governments to act to reduce them.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:08 PM
    Researchers have developed a new method which makes CRISPR gene editing more precise than conventional methods. The method selects the molecules best suited for helping the CRISPR-Cas9 protein with high-precision editing at the correct location in our DNA, the researchers explain.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:06 PM
    Using a new 3D printing process, researchers have discovered how to tailor-make artificial body parts and other medical devices with built-in functionality that offers better shape and durability, while cutting the risk of bacterial infection at the same time.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:03 PM
    Plant researchers have discovered an unusual and previously unknown reproductive strategy in plants: the Greek pipevine species 'Aristolochia microstoma' produces a unique mixture of volatiles that resembles the smell of dead and decaying insects to attract the pollinating fly genus 'Megaselia' (also known as 'coffin flies') to its trap-flowers.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:56:01 PM
    The type of material present under glaciers has a big impact on how fast they slide towards the ocean. Scientists face a challenging task to acquire data of this under-ice landscape. Choosing the wrong equations for the under-ice landscape can have the same effect on the predicted contribution to sea-level rise as a warming of several degrees, according to researchers.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:59 PM
    Acoustic waves in gases, liquids, and solids usually travel at an almost constant speed of sound. Rotons are an exception: their speed of sound changes significantly with the wavelength, it is also possible that the waves travel backwards. Researchers are studying the possibilities of using rotons in artificial materials. These metamaterials might be used in the future to manipulate or direct sound in ways that have never been possible before.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:53 PM
    What is already established for inorganic semiconductors stays a challenge for their organic counterparts: Tuning the energy gap by blending different semiconducting molecules to optimize device performance. Now, scientists demonstrated how to reach this goal.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:51 PM
    Soot particles from oil and wood heating systems as well as road traffic can pollute the air in Europe on a much larger scale than previously assumed. The evaluation of the sources during a measuring campaign in Germany showed that about half of the soot particles came from the surrounding area and the other half from long distances. This underlines the need to further reduce emissions of soot that is harmful to health and climate.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:48 PM
    It is generally agreed that sperms 'swim' by beating or rotating their soft tails. However, a research team has discovered that ray sperms move by rotating both the tail and the head. The team further investigated the motion pattern and demonstrated it with a robot. Their study has expanded the knowledge on the microorganisms' motion and provided inspiration for robot engineering design.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:46 PM
    Inaccessible workplaces, normative departmental cultures and 'ableist' academic systems have all contributed to the continued under-representation and exclusion of disabled researchers, according to an expert.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:41 PM
    Through the biological fixation of the element nitrogen by the enzyme nitrogenase, organisms gain access to molecular nitrogen (N2) in the Earth's atmosphere, which is essential for building cellular structures. In addition, a vanadium-dependent variant of nitrogenase can reduce the toxic gas carbon monoxide (CO) to hydrocarbons. These reductions of N2 and CO are among the most important processes in industrial chemistry, as they are used to produce both fertilizers and synthetic fuels. However, researchers have not yet been able to decipher the different pathways of the two reactions.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:38 PM
    Researchers determined willingness to try new things along with parental attachment could be indicators of self-control among first-year students.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:36 PM
    Biomedical engineers have demonstrated that a class of interwoven composite materials called semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (sIPNs) can be produced by living cells. The approach could make these versatile materials more biologically compatible for biomedical applications such as time-delayed drug delivery systems.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:34 PM
    Humans expect that AI is benevolent and trustworthy. A new study reveals that at the same time humans are unwilling to cooperate and compromise with machines. They even exploit them.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:29 PM
    Researchers report that Elovanoids, bioactive chemical messengers made from omega-3 very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, may block the virus that causes COVID-19 from entering cells and protect the air cells (alveoli) of the lung.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:55:27 PM
    Until now, systemic biomarkers to measure exercise effects on brain function and that link to relevant metabolic responses were lacking. A study shows a memory biomarker, myokine Cathepsin B (CTSB), increased in older adults following a 26-week structured aerobic exercise training. The positive association between CTSB and cognition, and the substantial modulation of lipid metabolites implicated in dementia, support the beneficial effects of exercise training on brain function and brain health in asymptomatic individuals at risk for Alzheimer's.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:38:59 PM
    Events of the past year have exposed the crisis of the digital divide in the U.S. To tackle this problem, researchers have developed a new tool to smooth the collection of federal broadband access data that helps pinpoint coverage gaps across the US.
  • Jun 10, 2021 5:38:56 PM
    Maritime litter is among the most urgent global pollution issues. Marine scientist have published an overview study of solutions for prevention, monitoring, and removal. They found that reducing ocean pollution requires more support, integration, and creative political decisiveness.