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Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily

Published: Oct 30, 2020 3:30:02 PM
  • Oct 30, 2020 3:18:39 PM
    Mega-droughts - droughts that last two decades or longer - are tipped to increase thanks to climate change, according to new research.
  • Oct 30, 2020 1:44:20 PM
    NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission has successfully stowed the spacecraft's Sample Return Capsule (SRC) and its abundant sample of asteroid Bennu.
  • Oct 30, 2020 1:22:50 PM
    Scientists advance a new technique to make graphene from waste with a focus on plastic.
  • Oct 30, 2020 12:15:42 PM
    Technological innovations are rapidly changing how we consume goods and services. In many domains, we are trading ownership of private material goods for access to use shared and experiential goods and services. This article outlines how the downstream effects of these consumption changes are channeled through their influence on psychological ownership -- the feeling that a thing is MINE.
  • Oct 29, 2020 11:11:16 PM
    Grocery store employees are likely to be at heightened risk of COVID-19 infection, with those in customer-facing roles 5 times as likely to test positive as their colleagues in other positions, a new study suggests.
  • Oct 29, 2020 9:16:53 PM
    A new study suggests myocarditis caused by COVID-19 may be a relatively rare occurrence.
  • Oct 29, 2020 9:16:51 PM
    Researchers have found that a more intensive, less frequent drug regimen with currently available therapeutics could cure the infection that causes Chagas disease.
  • Oct 29, 2020 9:16:49 PM
    An environmental health scientist has used an unprecedented objective approach to identify which molecular mechanisms in mammals are the most sensitive to chemical exposures.
  • Oct 29, 2020 9:16:47 PM
    Researchers expand their theory on converting graphene into 2D diamond, or diamane.
  • Oct 29, 2020 9:16:46 PM
    Our biological processes rely on a system of communications -- cellular signals -- that set off chain reactions in and between target cells to produce a response. The first step in these often complex communications is the moment a molecule binds to a receptor on or in a cell, prompting changes that can trigger further signals that propagate across systems. From food tasting and blood oxygenation during breathing to drug therapy, receptor binding is the fundamental mechanism that unlocks a multitude of biological functions and responses.
  • Oct 29, 2020 9:16:44 PM
    Researchers have created a new model of how the coronavirus can spread through a community. The model factors in network exposure -- whom one interacts with -- and demographics to simulate at a more detailed level both where and how quickly the coronavirus could spread through Seattle and 18 other major cities.
  • Oct 29, 2020 9:16:42 PM
    An academic has helped draw up a landmark agreement amongst international experts, setting out the world's first standard guidance on how people with diabetes can use modern glucose monitoring devices to help them exercise safely. The guidance will be a crucial resource for healthcare professionals around the world, so they can help people with type 1 diabetes.
  • Oct 29, 2020 9:16:40 PM
    Pyrite, or fool's gold, is a common mineral that reacts quickly with oxygen when exposed to water or air, such as during mining operations, and can lead to acid mine drainage. Little is known, however, about the oxidation of pyrite in unmined rock deep underground.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:20:42 PM
    Mice fed diets high in sugar developed worse colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and researchers examining their large intestines found more of the bacteria that can damage the gut's protective mucus layer.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:20:40 PM
    Researchers have created fundamental electronic building blocks out of tiny structures known as quantum dots and used them to assemble functional logic circuits.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:20:37 PM
    Dopamine can trigger feelings of happiness in humans. Water fleas that are exposed to dopamine-regulating substances apparently gain several advantages.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:20:35 PM
    Flip a coin. Heads? Take a step to the left. Tails? Take a step to the right. In the quantum world? Go in both directions at once, like a wave spreading out. Called the walker analogy, this random process can be applied in both classical and quantum algorithms used in state-of-the-art technologies such as artificial intelligence and data search processes. However, the randomness also makes the walk difficult to control, making it more difficult to precisely design systems.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:20:25 PM
    Scientists identified a novel family of sensors in the first layer of cells inside the suction cups that have adapted to react and detect molecules that don't dissolve well in water. The research suggests these sensors, called chemotactile receptors, use these molecules to help the animal figure out what it's touching and whether that object is prey.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:20:19 PM
    Historically, spring-run and fall-run Chinook salmon have been considered as separate subspecies, races, ecotypes, or even as separate species of fish. A new genetic analysis, however, shows that the timing of migration in Chinook salmon is determined entirely by differences in one short stretch of DNA in their genomes.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:20:04 PM
    Researchers have developed CRISPR-LICHT, a revolutionary technology that allows genetic screens in human tissues such as brain organoids. By applying the novel technology to brain organoids, the ER-stress pathway was identified to play a major role in regulating the size of the human brain.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:20:01 PM
    The most detailed analysis to date of CRISPR genome editing in human embryos finds a significant risk of chromosomal abnormalities when using the technique at earliest stage of human development.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:19:49 PM
    Plants have veins that transport nutrients through their body. These veins are highly organized. The hormone auxin travels directionally from cell-to-cell and provides cells with positional information, coordinating them during vein formation and regeneration. Scientists now discovered how cells translate auxin signals into forming a complex system of veins. This phenomenon also applies to wound healing and might lead to more mechanically resistant plants and further agricultural implications.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:19:45 PM
    A global study of ancient dog DNA presents evidence that there were different types of dogs more than 11,000 years ago in the period immediately following the Ice Age.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:19:43 PM
    Contrary to expectation, treatment with statins has a different effect on blood cells than on muscle cells, a new study reveals. Today, statins are mainly used in the treatment of elevated cholesterol, but the new results may help design drugs for a number of conditions.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:17:40 PM
    Researchers analyzed the genome of the oldest human fossil found in Mongolia to date and show that the 34,000-year-old woman inherited around 25 percent of her DNA from western Eurasians, demonstrating that people moved across the Eurasian continent shortly after it had first been settled by the ancestors of present-day populations. This individual and a 40,000-year-old individual from China also carried DNA from Denisovans, an extinct form of hominins that inhabited Asia before modern humans arrived.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:12:01 PM
    A new technique has been developed allowing reliable atomic-resolution images to be taken, for the first time, of hybrid photoactive perovskite thin films - highly favorable materials for efficient photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. These images have significant implications for improving the performance of solar cell materials and have unlocked the next level of ability to understand these technologically important materials.
  • Oct 29, 2020 6:11:51 PM
    Magnets are to be found everywhere in our daily lives, whether in satellites, telephones or on fridge doors. However, they are made up of heavy inorganic materials whose component elements are, in some cases, of limited availability. Now, researchers from the CNRS, the University of Bordeaux and the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble) have developed a new lightweight molecule-based magnet, produced at low temperatures, and exhibiting unprecedented magnetic properties.
  • Oct 29, 2020 5:55:03 PM
    When satellites take pictures of Earth at night, how much of the light that they see comes from streetlights? A team of scientists have answered this question for the first time using the example of the U.S. city of Tucson, thanks to 'smart city' lighting technology that allows dimming. The result: only around 20 percent of the light in the Tucson satellite images comes from streetlights.
  • Oct 29, 2020 5:55:01 PM
    A new study finds that people who feel enthusiastic and cheerful -- what psychologists call 'positive affect' -- are less likely to experience memory decline as they age. This result adds to a growing body of research on positive affect's role in healthy aging.
  • Oct 29, 2020 5:54:26 PM
    It's still easy to think we're in control when browsing the internet, but a new study argues much of that is 'an illusion.' Corporations are 'nudging' us online more than we realize, and often in hidden ways. Researchers analyzed click-stream data on a million people over one month of internet use to find common browsing sequences, then connected that with site and platform ownership and partnerships, as well as site design and other factors.
  • Oct 29, 2020 4:29:51 PM
    Hayabusa2 mission members discovered more than 200 boulders, which either newly appeared or moved as a result of the artificial impact crater created by the Japanese spacecraft's Small Carry-on Impactor. Boulders were disturbed within a 30m radius from the impact crater center- providing important insight into asteroids' resurfacing processes.
  • Oct 29, 2020 4:29:43 PM
    Per-/poly-fluroalkyl substances, or PFAS, are everywhere. They are used in firefighting foam, car wax, and even fast-food wrappers. They're one of the most toxic substances ever identified -- harmful at concentrations in the parts per trillion -- yet very little is known about them.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:40 PM
    Relationship psychologists have shown that people's trust in artificial intelligence (AI) is tied to their relationship or attachment style.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:36 PM
    Your bag of mulch may not be what you think it is. In a new study, researchers found that some bags labeled as 'cypress' contain only 50% cypress, while other bags contained no cypress at all.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:34 PM
    Using sophisticated 3D genomic mapping and integrating with public data resulting from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), researchers have found significant genetic correlations between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and stress and depression.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:30 PM
    They look like microscopic bottle brushes: Polymers with a backbone and tufts of side arms. This molecular design gives them unusual abilities: For example, they can bind active agents and release them again when the temperature changes. With the help of neutrons, a research team has now succeeded to unveil the changes in the internal structure in course of the process.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:24 PM
    Vestal Grove in Cook County, Illinois, looks nothing like the scrubby, buckthorn-choked tangle that first confronted restoration ecologists 37 years ago. Thanks to the efforts of a dedicated team that focused on rooting up invasive plants and periodically burning, seeding native plants and culling deer, the forest again resembles its ancient self, researchers report.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:22 PM
    Researchers define for the first time the precise exact ranges in which positively and negatively charged fragments can be produced when living cells are bombarded with fast, heavy ions.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:20 PM
    A small energy harvesting device that can transform subtle mechanical vibrations into electrical energy could be used to power wireless sensors and actuators for use in anything from temperature and occupancy monitoring in smart environments, to biosensing within the human body. Engineers have developed a predictive model for such a device, which will allow researchers to better understand and optimize its functionalities.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:16 PM
    Researchers have demonstrated that they can attract, capture and destroy PFAS - a group of federally regulated substances found in everything from nonstick coatings to shampoo and nicknamed 'the forever chemicals' due to their persistence in the natural environment.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:12 PM
    In the dark of night, ogre-faced spiders with dominating big eyes dangle from a silk frame to cast a web and capture their ground prey. But these spiders also can capture insects flying behind them with precision, and scientists have now confirmed how.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:09 PM
    New research suggests that our immune system may play an active role in shaping the digestive-tract flora, which is tightly linked to health and disease.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:58:02 PM
    New work reveals the likely original locations of Saturn and Jupiter. These findings refine our understanding of the forces that determined our Solar System's unusual architecture, including the ejection of an additional planet between Saturn and Uranus, ensuring that only small, rocky planets, like Earth, formed inward of Jupiter.
  • Oct 29, 2020 3:57:59 PM
    New research showed how immune 'training' transforms innate immune cells to target tumors. The findings could inform new approaches to cancer immunotherapy or even strategies for preventing tumor growth.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:51:15 PM
    When startled, do all fish respond the same way? A few fish, like Mexican cavefish, have evolved in unique environments without any predators. To see how this lack of predation impacts escape responses that are highly stereotyped across fish species, scientists explored this tiny fish to determine if there are evolved differences in them. Findings reveal that the dramatic ecological differences between cave and river environments contribute to differences in escape behavior in blind cavefish and river-dwelling surface cavefish.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:38 PM
    A new study confirms the success of a natural-gas leak-detection tool that uses sensors and machine learning to locate leak points at oil and gas fields, promising new automatic, affordable sampling across vast natural gas infrastructure.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:36 PM
    Researchers have revealed more details about omnidirectional photoluminescence (ODPL) spectroscopy - a method for probing semiconducting crystals with light to detect defects and impurities.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:32 PM
    Researchers developed a novel microcarrier for large-scale cell production and expansion that offers higher yield and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional methods, and reduces steps required in the cell retrieval process. The findings can help treat ailments such as bone and cartilage defects and graft vs. host disease.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:30 PM
    Teens who have good, supportive relationships with their teachers enjoy better health as adults, according to new research. Perhaps surprisingly, although friendships are important to adolescents, the study did not find the same link between good peer relationships and students' health in adulthood.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:16 PM
    About half of all tumors have mutations of the gene p53, normally responsible for warding off cancer. Now scientists have discovered a new role for p53 in its fight against tumors: preventing retrotransposons, or 'jumping genes,' from hopping around the human genome. In cells with missing or mutated p53, the team found, retrotransposons move and multiply more than usual. The finding could lead to new ways of detecting or treating cancers with p53 mutations.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:13 PM
    Researchers have investigated the mechanism behind defensive behavior in mice. They have identified a specific area of the brain that encodes both spatial and threat cues to drive location-specific defensive responses.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:11 PM
    The fur of the platypus - an Australian species threatened with extinction - glows green under ultraviolet light, a new study finds. This is the first observation of biofluorescence in an egg-laying mammal (monotreme), suggesting this extraordinary trait may not be as rare as previously thought.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:09 PM
    Using stable isotope analysis, scientists showed that individual red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have a narrower diet than might be expected from their omnivorous habits. The population of country foxes had a broader diet than their urban conspecifics; the diet of urban and country foxes showed little overlap. This combination of specialization and flexibility is a key to this omnivore's adaptability.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:05 PM
    A recent study reveals how gene control mechanisms define the identity of developing neurons in the brainstem. The researchers also showed that a failure in differentiation of the brainstem neurons leads to behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity and attention deficit.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:50:01 PM
    Algorithms that assess the risk of citizens becoming unemployed are currently being tested in a number of Danish municipalities. But according to a new study, gaining employment is not the only relevant goal for those out of work -- nor should it be for an algorithm.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:49:59 PM
    There seems to be a discrepancy between measurement of the expansion of the Universe using radiation in the early Universe and using nearby objects. Researchers have now contributed to this debate by focusing on velocity.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:49:57 PM
    In a study using genetically modified mice, researchers found that the nucleus accumbens recruited by cocaine use are largely distinct from nucleus accumbens recruited by sucrose, or table sugar. Because they are separate, this poses the possibility that drug use can be addressed without affecting biologically adaptive seeking of reward.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:49:55 PM
    An international research team has sequenced the full genome of an ornamental variety of miscanthus, a wild perennial grass emerging as a prime candidate for sustainable bioenergy crops. The genome project provides a road map for researchers exploring new avenues to maximize the plant's productivity and decipher the genetic basis for its desirable traits.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:49:51 PM
    Black soldier fly larvae contains more zinc and iron than lean meat and its calcium content is higher than milk. Less than half a hectare of black soldier fly larvae can produce more protein than cattle grazing on around 1200 hectares, or 52 hectares of soybeans. New research has identified the barriers for introducing fly protein into Western human diets as a sustainable, healthy alternative to both meat and plant proteins.
  • Oct 29, 2020 2:49:46 PM
    Existing methods for detecting seafood spoilage are far from satisfactory for ensuring food safety and security. To solve this problem, researchers have constructed and tested a solid-state fluorescent sensor loaded on filter papers that can instantly and accurately measure the rate of spoilage in Atlantic salmon - and can easily be applied to other seafood.