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Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily

Published: Nov 22, 2017 11:34:02 PM
  • Nov 22, 2017 6:13:59 PM
    For the first time, a science experiment has measured Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos -- the smaller-than-an-atom particles that zoom throughout space and through us by the trillions every second at nearly the speed of light. The experiment was achieved with the IceCube detector, an array of 5,160 basketball-sized sensors frozen deep within a cubic kilometer of very clear ice near the South Pole.
  • Nov 22, 2017 6:13:56 PM
    Researchers have illuminated an important role for different subtypes of muscle cells in orchestrating the process of tissue regeneration. Notably, in the absence of these muscles, regeneration fails to proceed.
  • Nov 22, 2017 6:13:53 PM
    Researchers find that lightning strikes causes photonuclear reactions in the atmosphere, creating antimatter.
  • Nov 22, 2017 5:40:29 PM
    New mechanisms of cell death have now been discovered, which may be involved in debilitating neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, report scientists.
  • Nov 22, 2017 4:30:16 PM
    Picture a grasshopper landing randomly on a lawn of fixed area. If it then jumps a certain distance in a random direction, what shape should the lawn be to maximize the chance that the grasshopper stays on the lawn after jumping?
  • Nov 22, 2017 4:30:03 PM
    Neutron stars are made out of cold ultra-dense matter. How this matter behaves is one of the biggest mysteries in modern nuclear physics. Researchers developed a new method for measuring the radius of neutron stars which helps them to understand what happens to the matter inside the star under extreme pressure.
  • Nov 22, 2017 4:30:00 PM
    Due to their unique properties, carbon nanotubes would be ideal for numerous applications, but to date they cannot be combined adequately with other materials, or they lose their beneficial properties. Scientists have developed an alternative method of combining, so they retain their characteristic properties. As such, they 'felt' the thread-like tubes into a stable 3-D network.
  • Nov 22, 2017 4:29:51 PM
    Endotracheal intubation and tracheotomy are widely used in the hospital setting for elective surgery and in cases of serious illness or critical injury. In rare instances the procedures result in the development of scarring and narrowing of the larynx and trachea, or acquired laryngotracheal stenosis (ALTS). Who is susceptible to ALTS -- and why -- is unclear, but according to new research, genetic and ethnic background may be underlying factors.
  • Nov 22, 2017 4:29:48 PM
    Two new studies on the evolutionary origin of teeth and of vertebra further illuminate the human connection to marine organisms that goes back millions of years. Both studies were conducted in the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea).
  • Nov 22, 2017 4:02:09 PM
    Current process for complaints against doctors reduces their wellbeing and causes fear-driven working practices that could compromise patient care, suggests a new English study.
  • Nov 22, 2017 3:36:09 PM
    Bearded dragons which are incubated in colder environments are better at solving cognitive tasks as adults than incubated in warmer temperatures, according to new research. Scientists tested the social learning abilities of bearded dragons which had been incubated in either an average of 30°C or 27°C and found that those from the colder incubation environment picked up new skills faster than their hotter counterparts.
  • Nov 22, 2017 3:35:52 PM
    Differences in intelligence have so far mostly been attributed to differences in specific brain regions. However, are smart people's brains also wired differently to those of less intelligent persons? A new study supports this assumption. In intelligent persons, certain brain regions are more strongly involved in the flow of information between brain regions, while other brain regions are less engaged.
  • Nov 22, 2017 3:35:41 PM
    Here's some advice for landowners wanting to remove pine trees in the hope of seeing fynbos plants on their properties again: do so before the trees have grown there for more than 30 years. The longer they wait, the less likely the chances that any fynbos seeds will be left in the soil to sprout successfully, according to researchers.
  • Nov 22, 2017 3:35:37 PM
    When the HLF (hepatic leukemia factor) gene -- which is expressed in immature blood cells -- does not shut down on time, we are unable to develop a functional long-term immune system, investigators have found. This could be a very early stage of leukemia, they say.
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:31:22 PM
    Sea nettle jellyfish found in Rehoboth and Chesapeake Bay are actually two species, researchers have discovered.
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:31:20 PM
    Understanding how brains actively erase memories may open new understanding of memory loss and aging, and open the possibility of new treatments for neurodegenerative disease.
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:31:17 PM
    Outbreaks of mosquito-borne viruses Zika and Chikungunya generally occur about three weeks after heavy rainfall, research shows. Researchers also found that Chikungunya will predominate over Zika when both circulate at the same time.
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:31:12 PM
    Scientists have revealed that elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a particularly weakened ability to memorize human faces in the short term when compared to healthy elderly people. MCI patients also had a different gaze behavior when trying to memorize a face. This research may lead to the early detection of dementia.
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:31:06 PM
    Information from brain MRIs can help identify people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and distinguish among subtypes of the condition, according to a new study.
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:31:00 PM
    Due to climate change, including rising temperatures, more and more methane is bubbling up from lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands throughout the world. The release of methane -- a potent greenhouse gas -- leads to a further increase in temperature, thus creating a positive feedback loop (also known as a 'vicious circle').
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:30:39 PM
    Natural habitats play a vital role in helping other plants and animals resist heat stresses ramping up with climate change -- at least until the species they depend on to form those habitats become imperiled.
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:30:36 PM
    A team of neuroscientists has constructed the first whole-brain map of electrical connectivity in the brain based on data from nearly 300 neurosurgical patients with electrodes implanted directly on the brain. The researchers found that low-frequency rhythms of brain activity, when brain waves move up and down slowly, primarily drive communication between the frontal, temporal and medial temporal lobes, key brain regions that engage during memory processing.
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:30:30 PM
    Scientists have design better molecules that make it harder for plasmids to move between bacteria.
  • Nov 22, 2017 2:30:24 PM
    Physical fitness in children may affect their brain structure, which in turn may have an influence on their academic performance, new research indicates.
  • Nov 21, 2017 8:58:22 PM
    Schooling fish constantly change who they decide to pay attention to and respond to one or two neighbors at a time, new research shows.
  • Nov 21, 2017 8:58:15 PM
    Playing a video game that rewards participants for holding various "ninja" poses could help children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improve their balance, according to a recent study.
  • Nov 21, 2017 8:58:04 PM
    The dangerous wobbling of pedestrian bridges could be reduced by using biomechanically inspired models of pedestrian response to bridge motion and a mathematical formula to estimate the critical crowd size at which bridge wobbling begins, according to a study.
  • Nov 21, 2017 7:19:33 PM
    Cutting the budget of the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) by 44 percent, as the US Congress has proposed, would lead to an estimated 67 million additional cases of malaria over the next four years, according to a mathematical model.
  • Nov 21, 2017 7:19:29 PM
    Confirmatory HIV testing can substantially reduce the number of infants in South Africa who may be falsely diagnosed as HIV-infected and started on unneeded treatment, according to a new study.
  • Nov 21, 2017 7:19:24 PM
    The environment surrounding a tumor can trigger metastatic behavior in cancer cells, a team of bioengineers and bioinformaticians has discovered. Specifically, when tumor cells are confined in a dense environment, the researchers found that they turn on a specific set of genes and begin to form structures that resemble blood vessels.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:54:58 PM
    Amid mounting controversy over use of neonicotinoids and declining bee population, a new analysis of previously unpublished studies and reports commissioned by agri-chemical companies Bayer and Syngenta -- as well as published papers from the scientific literature -- shows no significant ill effects on honeybee colonies from three common insecticides made by the companies.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:54:55 PM
    A novel method, developed by an economist has been created to evaluate a worker's skillset and determine its impact on wages.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:25:43 PM
    A new nanomechanical hand shows the time of an electronic clock, by spinning a tiny cylinder using light. A silicon nanorod, less than a thousandth of a millimetre long, can be trapped in thin air using focused laser beams, and spun to follow the ticking of a clock, losing only one-millionth of a second over four days.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:25:41 PM
    In pursuit of a better imaging phantom for improved tumor measurements, scientists hit upon an effective but unconventional solution: injecting water into disposable diapers.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:25:35 PM
    A study of an unusual snapping turtle with one lung found shared characteristics with humans born with one lung who survive beyond infancy. New digital 3-D anatomical models made the detailed research possible.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:25:32 PM
    New research reveals the best way to make metal particles stick to a surface in a spray-coating process. Surprisingly, melting hurts rather than helps.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:25:29 PM
    Scientists have engineered a mouse model to study a rare and often-fatal form of liver cancer. They've used it to clarify what drives these tumors at the molecular level, and discover new drug concepts.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:25:26 PM
    A potentially low-cost, low-emissions technology has been designed that can convert methane without forming carbon dioxide.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:25:24 PM
    A research team took to the lab to recreate the magmatic melt that once formed the lunar surface and uncovered new insights on how the modern moonscape came to be.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:25:21 PM
    New uses for deep learning have been developed, report researchers, specificially reconstructing a hologram to form a microscopic image of an object and improving optical microscopy. Their new holographic imaging technique produces better images than current methods that use multiple holograms, and it's easier to implement because it requires fewer measurements and performs computations faster.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:25:18 PM
    Biologists have revealed a mechanism by which bacterial cells in crowded, oxygen-deprived environments access oxygen for energy production, ensuring survival of the cell. The finding could explain how some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), are able to thrive in oxygen-poor environments like biofilms and resist antibiotics. P. aeruginosa biofilm infections are a leading cause of death for people suffering from cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition that affects the lungs and the digestive system.
  • Nov 21, 2017 6:23:31 PM
    The discovery of nanoscale changes deep inside hybrid perovskites could shed light on developing low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. Using X-ray beams and lasers, a team of researchers discovered how the movement of ions in hybrid perovskites causes certain regions within the material to become better solar cells than other parts.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:35:18 PM
    A new study has found that differently-coiled types of Japanese land snails should in fact be considered a single species, because -- against all odds -- they are sometimes able to mate, a result which has implications for the classification of other snails.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:33:08 PM
    Maintaining sufficient vitamin D levels may help to prevent the onset of inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, research has discovered.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:31:46 PM
    An underwater acoustic system for the localization of marine mammals, underwater vehicles and other sound sources in the ocean, using no more than a single hydrophone (basically an underwater microphone) as a receiver.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:24:05 PM
    Feeding the animals is altering the behavior and eating habits of the green turtle in the Canary Islands (Spain), concludes new research.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:23:12 PM
    The Nobel Prize for physics in 2016 was awarded for the theory of topological matter. Topological insulators are new materials with special electronic properties and are of great fundamental and applications-oriented interest. Nevertheless, physicists have wrestled with a ten-year-old puzzle in which the results from the two best methods to probe their electronic states disagree. Researchers now know exactly why.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:15:10 PM
    Recently reported unexpected behavior on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is due to its unique atmospheric chemistry. Titan is the largest moon of Saturn, is bigger than the planet Mercury, and is the only moon in our solar system to have a substantial atmosphere.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:15:07 PM
    Communication is often mired in contradiction -- also in the brain. Neuroscientists have now resolved one such contradiction. The role of Synaptotagmin 7 has been controversial: There was a contradiction between the function it seemed to have, and the characteristics of signal transmission observed. Now, for the first time, scientists defined its functional contribution at an inhibitory GABAergic synapse: it ensures the efficiency of high-frequency inhibitory synaptic transmission.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:15:03 PM
    A new study is the first to show precisely how a process in nerve cells, called the S-nitrosylation (SNO) reaction, may contribute to Parkinson's disease.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:15:00 PM
    New data further illuminate how some human beings generate powerful, HIV-blocking antibodies. These results offer important insight into a potential AIDS vaccine design.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:14:57 PM
    Renderings of 3-D cells in the body are traditionally displayed using 2-D media, such as on a computer screen or paper; however, the advent of Virtual Reality (VR) headsets means it is now possible to visualize and interact with scientific data in a 3-D virtual world.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:14:52 PM
    A new model explains the molecular mechanism used by plants to adapt their photosynthetic mechanism to light intensity.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:14:49 PM
    When a woman chooses not to take her husband's surname after marriage, people perceive her husband as being higher in traits related to femininity and lower in traits related to masculinity. He is also perceived as having less power in the relationship.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:14:46 PM
    Hyperaccumulators are unusual plants that can absorb much larger amounts of metal compounds in their leaves and stems than normal plants, and they are very useful for cleaning up contaminated land.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:14:41 PM
    How deep can seawater penetrate through cracks and fissures into the seafloor? By applying a new analysis method, an international team of researchers has now discovered that the water can penetrate to depths of more than 10 kilometers below the seafloor. This result suggests a stronger cooling effect on the hot mantle.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:14:38 PM
    The three-dimensional folding of DNA provides important epigenetic mechanisms in the formation of cardiac muscle cells.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:14:32 PM
    Scientists have unlocked a key to maintain the insecticide's effectiveness in eliminating pests without killing beneficial bugs, such as bees. The study shows that molecular tweaks can make the difference.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:14:16 PM
    While new CF drugs are life-changing for some patients, they don't work for everyone. Now, researchers present a simple test that aims to predict which treatment is most likely to work for each patient, an approach known as personalized or precision medicine.
  • Nov 21, 2017 5:14:09 PM
    For more than a century, plant geneticists have been studying maize as a model system to understand the rules governing the inheritance of traits, and a team of researchers recently unveiled a previously unknown mechanism that triggers gene silencing in corn.